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JAMES MCNEILL WHISTLER 



JAMES MCNEILL 
WHISTLER ^^^^ 

THE MAN AND HIS WORK 
BY ...... W. G. BOWDOIN 



M. F. MANSFIELD & CO., NEW YORK 
LONDON MDCCCCI 



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40.1 

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f\f\f^ M. F. MANSFIELD & CO. 



To 
Mrs. Edward Bok 

This volume is inscribed 

In memory of 

Some very pleasant hours spent at " The Grange. 




CONTENTS 

Biographical sketch ...... Page 5 1 

Anecdotes ........ Page 51 

List of Whistler prints in the Avery Collection at the Lenox 

Library Page 56 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Frontispiece, Whistler showing white lock, from portrait by 

Mendelsohn, London. 
Portrait of my Mother 
Lady Eden 
Japanese Lady 
Sketching 
The Punt 
"A Symphony." Spy's famous caricature of Whistler. 



James McNeill Whistler 



James Abbott McNeill Whistler was born at 
Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1834. His mother was a 
Miss Winans, of Baltimore, whose family was one 
of the oldest, most aristocratic and highly distin- 
guished of the South. Branches of her family are 
known to have extended beyond the borders of 
Maryland into Virginia and Georgia. Whistler's 
father, Major George Washington Whistler, was 
educated at the West Point Military Academy, from 
which institution he was graduated with high honors, 
and became an officer of the Corps of En- 
gineers. He resigned from the army to become 
the consulting engineer for the St. Petersburg and 
Moscow Railway, a post obtained by him through 
the influence and upon the invitation of the Em- 
peror Nicholas. 



James McNeill Whistler 

Major Whistler was responsible for the build- 
ing of many of the Russian railroads, and was held 
in the very highest esteem throughout the empire. 
The childhood of the youthful Whistler was passed 
in Russia, whither he went with his mother to join 
Major Whistler at St. Petersburg. Upon the 
death of his father, he returned to the United States 
and in 1851, when seventeen years of age, following 
thus far in his father's footsteps, he became a stu- 
dent at West Point. He was then called James 
Whistler. He subsequently called himself James 
McNeill Whistler. 

According to statements printed in the Book- 
buyer by Thomas Wilson, U. S. A., retired, and a 
classmate of Whistler's at the Academy, it was dur- 
ing his fourth year at the West Point school that the 
pronounced skill as a draughtsman of Cadet Whist- 
ler attracted general attention. He dearly loved to 
make pen and ink sketches on camp stools, even on 
tent flaps and upon these unconventional canvases 
some of Whistler's earliest efforts appeared. The 
work thus done included some very beautiful heads. 



James McNeill Whistler 

Archaean work by Whistler was also done in the 
line of pen drawings that were strikingly decorative 
features in the cadet autograph albums of the 
period. 

The instructor in drawing and painting at the 
Military Academy during Whistler's student days 
there was Professor Robert Weir, who executed the 
well-known panel-picture in the rotunda of the Capi- 
tol building at Washington, entitled " The De- 
parture of the Pilgrims." Whistler did not remain 
to be graduated from the West Point Academy, His 
ability was never in question, but he seemed unable 
to fix his mind upon mathematical studies. He 
preferred rather to draw and paint. 

Whistler journeyed to Paris and there entered 
the Atelier of Gleyre, where he devoted himself to 
the study of art for two years. During his stay in 
Paris he numbered Bracquemond, Degas and Fantin- 
Latour among his friends and intimates. It was 
during this period also that he produced and 
published his first set of etchings, since known to 
print collectors as " The Little French Set." 

13 



James McNeill Whistler 

Whistler was industrious and painstaking, and it 
was likewise about this time that he painted " The 
White Girl," perhaps his first important picture. 
This picture was promptly rejected by the Jury of 
the Salon, but quickly made the youthful painter 
famous when subsequently exhibited at the Salon 
des Refuses. In 1863 Whistler removed to London 
from whence, on discovering its artistic charms, he 
found his way to Chelsea, where he, with varying 
fortunes, resided for many years before going to 
Paris. Because of his residence in this parish, 
many characteristic scenes of Chelsea's riverside 
have come from Whistler's hand, one of the earliest 
of which was " The Thames in Ice." It seems 
singular and very remarkable that with both Ros- 
setti and Swinburne as fellow-residents by the 
Thames banks, it should have been left to the artist 
and not to the poets to see and to express the 
poetry of the place and its environments, but so it 
was, and while Whistler's art has immortalized Chel- 
sea, the works of both Rossetti and Swinburne have 
not had similar and appreciable inspiration thus. 

14 



James McNeill Whistler 

Whistler was, for many years, a regular exhibi- 
tor at Burlington House, frequently with pro- 
nounced success. This was the case with his al- 
phabetic contribution entitled " At the Piano," that 
passed from the exhibition into the possession of 
the late John Phillip, R.A., by purchase. His well 
known " Portrait of my Mother " in black and grey, 
was first rejected by the Burlington House Com- 
mittee of Selection and was finally given a place 
on its exhibition walls only after a sharp struggle 
between the Committee and Sir William Boxall, 
R.A., now deceased. Sir William insisted upon 
the hanging of Whistler's picture and threatened 
to withdraw entirely from the council if this was not 
done, declaring that he would not go on record as 
being a member of a Committee that rejected such 
a meritorious painting. The " Portrait of my 
Mother " was in consequence finally reluctantly 
included in the exhibition at the Burlington 
House. The judgment of Sir William Boxall, as 
to the merit of this painting, was afterward fully 
confirmed by the awarding of the Gold Medal by 

15 



James McNeill Whistler 

the Jury in Paris for this picture at the Salon of 
1884. In 1 89 1 this portrait was purchased by the 
French government for the Luxembourg Gallery. 
Whistler's pictures have in recent years frequently 
been seen at the Salon des Beaux Arts. 

When the idea of building a gallery took shape 
in the mind of Sir Coutts Lindsay, Whistler was 
one of those to whom he turned for aid, council and 
cooperation. When the Grosvenor Gallery was at 
last completed and thrown open to the public in 
1877, it was with the reservation of a large 
Whistler space. From 1877 to 1884, Whistler was 
a continuous contributor to the exhibitions held at 
this Gallery. The list of paintings here shown, in- 
cludes " The Pacific," portraits of Miss Alexander, 
Miss Rosa Corder, Lady Archibald Campbell, 
Thomas Carlyle, Henry Irving as Philip II, and the 
" Nocturnes," (which were the inspiring cause of 
his action for libel against Mr. Ruskin. Judgment 
was nominally in Whistler's favor, but the damages 
awarded were only infinitesimal.) 

An invitation to membership with the Society 
16 



James McNeill Whistler 

of British Artists came to Mr. Whistler in 1884, 
and in 1886 he was honored with election as the 
society's president. In 1885 his portrait of Senor 
Sarasate was given the place of honor in the Suffolk 
Street Galleries. 

Mr. Whistler has never been a persistent gen- 
eral exhibitor in the public galleries grouped with 
miscellaneous art. Outside of the galleries previ- 
ously here noted, his work has been seen but very 
sparingly. He prefers to exhibit in rooms that he 
has personally decorated with the view of securing 
harmony between pictures and gallery environment. 
The heterogeneous mass of assembled pictures that 
is only too frequently characteristic of even the 
best of the exhibitions, repels Mr. Whistler. There 
has, however, been a tendency in certain quarters 
to regard with some suspicion the scientific 
Whistler " arrangements " or " harmonies," that 
have been shown by him as innovations from time 
to time. The first of his notable exhibitions of 
this kind, was held in London in 1874, at 48 Pall 
Mall. This was followed by three similar exhibi- 

17 



James McNeill Whistler 

tions held at the rooms of the Fine Art Society. 
Etchings and Dry Points from motifs which were 
the result of a journey, and some Whistler Venetian 
Days were thus exhibited in 1880 and 1883. In 
1881 he similarly massed some pastels he had exe- 
cuted in Venice, and in which glowed the Italian 
skies, delicate touches of the Grand Canal, happy 
gondoliers and things similar. 

He took the little gallery at 133 New Bond 
Street decoratively in hand in 1884, and again in 
1886, and each time the walls were covered with 
some sixty or seventy so-called " Notes, Harmonies 
and Nocturnes " of great beauty and charming 
freshness. The composition of the galleries was 
indicated by inscriptions such as " Arrangement in 
Brown and Gold," " Arrangement in Yellow and 
White," " Arrangement in Flesh-color and Grey," 
etc., etc. In each case the " butterfly " on the in- 
vitation card was given the appropriate color of 
the occasion. 

In 1877, he produced the " Peacock Room," in 
which the charms of an art that is decorative are 

18 



James McNeill Whistler 

dominant. The " Peacock Room " is built up from 
a gold dining room, the ceiling and mural paintings 
of which consist of a series of designs in blue that 
were suggested and derived from the markings of 
the royal peacock. The panels formed by the clos- 
ing of the shutters afford places whereupon are 
painted by Whistler wonderful studies of the stately 
bird, whose name gives title to the room. Pro- 
vision is, in this gorgeous way, most delightfully 
made in the " Peacock Room " for a superb setting 
for '' La Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine." Sev- 
eral other London houses similarly testify to the 
skill of Whistler, and set forth some of his concep- 
tions of color harmony in decorative requirements. 
Whistler has also worked to some extent in this way 
in Paris. The music room of his friend Sarasate 
has been done by Whistler in an arrangement of 
white, delicate pink and harmonizing yellow. All 
the furniture has also been specially designed with 
due regard for the purpose of the room. 

It is possibly as an etcher that Whistler has re- 
ceived the apogee of appreciation and acceptance. 

19 



James McNeill Whistler 

There is, it must be said, a strength of contrast in 
mere black and white, which when skiUfully ar- 
ranged, combined and massed, in hght and shade, 
and that which is intermediate, produces, at least 
under the inspiration of the Whistler needle, an art 
result in an etching that is, generally speaking, more 
readily accepted by the masses than is the work into 
which the more elaborate and more intricately 
complex element of color has been introduced. 
When one has revelled in admiration for black and 
white and studied the charm that is inherent, the 
way is somewhat prepared for the better and more 
ample understanding of the subtleties that belong to 
color. The portrayal results that lie within attain- 
ment grasp are very great. There is a brilliant firm- 
ness and emphasis of touch compassed by the etcher 
and his lines. They frequently suggest far more 
than they directly reveal, all of which easily spells 
fascination to a larger extent even for the observer 
who entirely lacks art education and is minus ad- 
vanced culture, than is the case with more elaborate 
essays in color and color combination. 



James McNeill Whistler 

Whatever may be said of Whistler as an etcher, 
certain it is that proofs of his plates command high 
prices in the market and print collectors vie one with 
another in their eager search for them and the 
ownership thereof. Whistler is, however, a many- 
sided man and his etchings have really always been 
hand and glove with his paintings. The following 
letter from Joseph Pennell shows the estimate of at 
least one who is appreciative of the Whistler etch- 
ings : 

MR. WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS. 

The Editor of The Daily Chronicle. 

Sir:— Mr. Whistler's plate, " Black Lion Wharf," 
or " The Black Lion," a reproduction of which is, 
I believe, to be published in to-day's Chronicle, is 
one of the greatest engraved plates that has been 
produced in modern times. I would even say that 
it is the greatest etching of modern times were it 
not for the fact that it is but one of a set known 
as " The Thames Series," etched by the master some 
thirty-five years ago. This " Thames Series," al- 



James McNeill Whistler 

though not as I propose to point out, the first etched 
work of Mr. Whistler, is, however, the first of that 
long succession of series which he has been issuing 
from that time until the present. 

In the Thames plates, it was Mr. Whistler's aim 
to show the river as it was in 1859, and each one 
of them is a little portrait of a place, a perfect 
work of art. For the rendering, as Mr. Whistler 
has rendered them, of these old houses in which 
every brick and every tile has been studied, every 
window frame rightly drawn, every bit of color 
truly suggested, is as much portraiture, and as dif- 
ficult, to accomplish, as to give the portrait of the 
old lighterman sitting in his barge. So difficult is 
it indeed, that but two men in the whole history 
of the world have done such a thing. The one a 
Dutchman of the seventeenth century, the other an 
American happily living and working to-day. The 
one, Rembrandt, died virtually uncared for and 
ignored by his contemporaries; if the other lives 
and still works, it is only because he has the cour- 
age of a great artist, which has enabled him, during 

22 



James McNeill Whistler 

a whole lifetime, to fight through the insults and 
abuse that have been hurled at him unceasingly from 
the highest critical authority in England, as John 
Ruskin was considered at one time, to the veriest 
halfpenny a liner; none was too high or too low to 
revile this artist, the man who certainly — we all 
know it now — will carry on the traditions of art to 
future generations. Now everything that he has 
produced is perfect, he is told; but as he himself has 
said, if it has been found good to-day, why was it 
not also good at the time it was brought forth? 

As I have said, these etchings are perfect por- 
traits of the London that we of the younger genera- 
tion have never seen, but Mr. Whistler has made 
it so real for us that it will live forever. We may 
talk of Hollar, of Canaletto, of Piranesi, of Hogarth, 
but not even that master makes us feel the reality of 
London as Mr. Whistler does. 

Among the other plates, in the same set, are the 
" Forge," a dry point, excessively rare ; the " Lime- 
house," a view down the Reach at low tide, with 
tangled barges lying in the mud ; the " Lime Burn- 

23 



James McNeill Whistler 

ers " with its beautiful suggestion of light and shade ; 
"Wapping;" the "Custom House," which even Mr. 
Hamerton was compelled to praise in a niggardly 
fashion, though to his last day he never had any true 
understanding of the art of Mr. Whistler. While 
this series alone is enough to win immortality for 
any man, it marks but one period in his life's work. 
The first etchings, I believe, that Mr. Whistler pro- 
duced were a series of maps made for the United 
States Coast Survey, and in their original state are, 
I fancy, virtually unknown. At any rate I do not 
think they were ever published, as the artist and 
the chief of the survey had, I have heard, diametri- 
cally opposite opinions as to what a tree should look 
like in a map. Really the first series of plates, I 
think, is that known as " The French Series," pos- 
sibly because, as I have always understood, it was 
made in Germany, though published in France. 
Among these are " The Unsafe Tenement," " The 
Cabaret," and several other plates perfectly well 
known. Next came many portraits and plates, from 
Chelsea to the Lower River, from Paris to London, 

24 



James McNeill Whistler 

among them the " Thames Series," which latter won 
for their author the strongest kind of recognition 
in the land of the other great etcher, Holland, if, at 
that time, nowhere else. Artists — I don't mean 
painters with titles before and after their names — 
have, however, always appreciated the art of Mr. 
Whistler. 

But from i860 to 1880, although very many 
plates were made, I do not think Mr. Whistler 
brought out any consecutive series. About 1881 he 
went to Venice, and after an absence from London 
of a year or more — his longest from the metropolis 
until he shook forever the dust of this unappreciative 
place off his feet — he brought back some fifty or 
sixty coppers which are now called masterpieces — 
true, they always were by artists — but were then 
known as " another crop of Mr. Whistler's little 
jokes," by that truthful person, Henry Labouchere. 
This, however, was mild. A chorus of abuse was 
uttered by Frederick Wedmore, P. G. Hamerton, 
Harry Quilter, and many others who, fortunately 
for themselves, did not sign their names. But those 

25 



James McNeill Whistler 

who did have ever since been trying to the best of 
their abihty to prove, that whenever they write about 
Mr. Whistler, they always make themselves ridicu- 
lous. Since then Mr. Whistler has gone on steadily 
working. Several plates were done in provincial 
France; still others in Holland. One or two studies 
of long lines of canals, windmills in the distance, 
are in feeling much the same as Rembrandt, but in 
line much superior to Mr. Whistler's only rival. In 
fact Sir Francis Seymour Haden said not very long 
ago that if he were compelled to give up his Rem- 
brandts or his Whistlers, the Rembrandts would go 
first — an appreciation that was certainly genuine. 
After the French work came a Belgian set ; but I am 
not sure if these have ever been regularly pub- 
lished; and I do not believe I am revealing any 
secrets when I say that I have seen the first proofs 
of another French series which, when they are is- 
sued, will delight the handful of people who know, 
by their beauty of line, their grace of subject, their 
exquisite handling. In this last Paris series, when 
the world sees it, all save the critics, will be com- 

26 



James McNeill Whistler 

pelled to acknowledge that here are consummate 
plates by the master. All his work is alike perfect. 
It has only been produced under different circum- 
stances, and is an attempt to render different effects 
or situations. Therefore the methods vary, but the 
results are always the same — great. Consequently 
the " Black Lion Wharf," is appropriate, not only 
as an illustration of the riverside of London a quar- 
ter of a century ago, but as showing a characteristic 
example of the marvellous work of the master. And 
it proves conclusively also, as I have pointed out be- 
fore, as The Daily Chronicle has pointed out as well, 
that great artists to-day, in showing their work to 
the public through the Press, are doing but what 
the great masters of the past did when they showed 
theirs to the same public through the Church. I do 
not expect the critics to understand me — that, how- 
ever, in unimportant. But I would say to the 
readers of The Daily Chronicle that never in the his- 
tory of the world has there been such a series of 
remarkable drawings published by a daily paper, and 
never before have two great artists like Mr. 

27 



James McNeill Whistler 

Whistler and Sir Edward Burne-Jones contributed 
to a daily journal. Their motives may have been 
deliberately mis-stated, but one of their real reasons 
is their interest in the most striking experiment in 
modern journalism. There is another point which 
this plate of Mr. Whistler's emphasises — that work 
which is really good looks well under any condi- 
tions. Joseph Pennell. 
London, February 22, 1895. 

In 1877, Whistler turned his attention to lithog- 
raphy. He did so not because it chanced to be a 
passing fancy or the fashion of the hour, but for the 
reason that lithography chanced to be just the 
method of artistic expression which sometimes met 
his artistic needs and requirements when nothing 
else did so. In his lithographs, as is the case also 
with his etchings, his pastels, likewise his paintings, 
there is a freshness and a spontaneity that in- 
dividualizes them and stamps them with distinction. 
They are replete with originality and a personality 
that is the triumphant characteristic of Whistler's 

28 



James McNeill Whistler 

whole work. The hthographic stone is not a fit 
experimental medium for the artist who does not 
know how to draw. The lines and color, every- 
thing that has a place in the composition, must re- 
main as they are put upon the stone. The limitations 
of lithography are, however, fully recognized by 
Whistler. It would indeed be a surprise if from an 
artist who has given us the portrait in the Luxem- 
bourg, " The Thames in Ice," and other Chelsea 
studies, " The Little White Girl " (not to be con- 
founded with "The White Girl"), the Carlyle and 
that harmony in grey and green, " Miss Alexander," 
we should suddenly receive a lithograph that was 
insignificant or commonplace, just because it chanced 
to be a lithograph. 

Mr. Whistler has never been driven to find his 
picture subjects elsewhere than in the life that is 
just around him. Whatever the medium in which 
he chooses to give voice to his art there is in his 
immediate surroundings ample material. The tum- 
ble-down shop, the careless and often unconsidered 
turn of a woman's head, the formal garden and its 

29 



James McNeill Whistler 

terraces, the seething life of London or Paris, the 
fishing fleets and their tall masts, even the thick 
English fog that usually repells, all these things 
furnish motifs to Whistler and he has played with 
such material and fixed it upon an appropriate art 
base, to live and give eye pleasure and solace to 
others from his point of view quite as certainly as 
have the master poets played with rhythm and 
cadence in verse that shall give ear pleasure. Mr. 
Whistler has made many portraits on stone. He 
has worked out of doors and it has well been said 
of him that he stands preeminent among painters 
as the interpreter of night. At least some of his 
popular fame rests upon his " Nocturnes." There is 
much to be said in favor of well executed pictures 
that are founded upon twilight or the night which 
follows. The high lights disappear entirely, it is 
true, but in the place of them, there is an ineffable 
softness of landscape, a subduing of the city and 
town and out of their encompassing darkness 
gleams, if the artist will but be faithful, candles of 
artificial lights, the art combination possibilities of 

30 



James McNeill Whistler 



which are supreme in such hands as Whistler's 
The world is a beautiful world if one sees it as 
Whistler sees it, and common things take on new 
and unsuspected beauty which when finally seen 
under Whistler's inspiration makes us marvel that it 
had so long- remained hidden. The " Chelsea Rags," 
" The Smith, Place du Dragon," " Sunday, Lyme 
Regis," " The River, from the Savoy," " The Drury 
Lane," " The Little Model Reading " even the 
" Butcher's Dog " are full common enough and yet 
they are each of them lovely when we see them with 
Whistler's eyes. That he had high abilities as a 
draughtsman, full knowledge, and an absolute com- 
mand of technique is made manifest from his litho- 
graphic studies of the nude or partially nude, model. 
These tend toward a completeness of the lithographic 
series that he has given us and furnish as well ex- 
cellent opportunities for judging of his artistic equip- 
ment. The crucial test of an artist lies often in his 
drawing of the human figure. By it he stands or 
falls and his capacity or incapacity is measured. It 
is held that there is nothing more difficult in art 

31 



James McNeill Whistler 



than figure-drawing and when this is done by Utho- 
graphic means the difficulty is greatly intensified 
Whistler is known to have executed 140 lithographs, 
130 of which are described in a catalogue compiled 
by Thomas R. Way that was published in London 
in 1896. Of these 106 were shown at the Grolier 
Club (New York) in April, 1900. 

Mr. Whistler's little model sits reading, she re- 
clines, and again stands by a large bowl. The 
beauty of her nudity is revealed and deified by 
him. Into these studies he has crowded grace of 
contour, line harmony, posing that is full of charm 
and purity, and characterized the tout ensemble with 
a daintiness that is scarcely over-estimated by the 
term flawless. " Art happens," Mr. Whistler has 
said, but it only happens where there is intelligence 
and skill in the painter as he works. Art does not 
" happen " to the artist who works without creative 
originality, individuality of observation and a direct- 
ness of expression that is unswerving. It lingers 
and lags and sinks into desuetude. 

One frequently hears Whistler spoken of as, 
32 



James McNeill Whistler 

what in the real sense of the word he is, — " an im- 
pressionist." There may be needful reservations in 
the term when applied to Whistler, but in so far as 
it is but the essence and spirit of a given subject 
that he considers worthy of attention, not merely 
some isolated quality whether of line, aspect, texture 
or the supremacy of color — he must take his place 
of necessity among the impressionists. From the 
standpoint of Whistler, Industry is not more need- 
ful to the orator than it is to the artist. He main- 
tains in " L'Envoi " that " Industry in Art is a 
necessity — not a virtue — and any evidence of the 
same in the production is a blemish, not a quality; 
— a proof, not of achievement, but of absolutely in- 
sufficient work, for work alone will efface the foot- 
steps of work." The academies and schools of art 
are intolerable to him because by the vogue machine 
methods that obtain almost universally among them 
all, the principal product is too apt to be only the 
amateur. And yet he would not do away with the 
art schools because as he says, " They are harmless, 
and it is just as well, when genius appears that he 

33 



James McNeill Whistler 

should find the fire alight, and the room warm, 
easels close to his hand, and the model sitting; 
though I make no doubt but that he'll immediately 
alter her pose! " 

One cannot read from Whistler's published lec- 
tures or his books, even if he has not seen his pic- 
tures, without being strongly impressed with the 
idea that he is a serious worker, and that he has 
considered his art from other standpoints than that 
of mere craftsmanship, and when his pictures are 
studied with any care, the ill-natured and far-reach- 
ing criticism of John Ruskin becomes all the more 
surprising, viz : — 

" For Mr. Whistler's own sake, no less than for 
the protection of the purchaser. Sir Coutts Lindsay 
ought not to have admitted works into the gallery 
in which the ill-educated conceit of the artist so 
nearly approaches the aspect of wilful imposture. I 
have seen and heard much of cockney impudence 
before now; but never expected to hear a coxcomb 
ask two hundred guineas for flinging a pot of paint 
in the public face." It may have applied with force 

34 



James McNeill Whistler 

to the particular picture exhibited at the Grosvenor 
Gallery in which " Battersea Bridge " was the noc- 
turnal motif, but the account of it all as set forth 
in Whistler's book " The Gentle Art of Making 
Enemies " shows something of the artist's eccen- 
tricity. In the book Whistler stands out clear and 
sharp in a strong white light, and our judgment of 
him based upon it alone, makes of him an entirely 
different man than as if one had heart to heart con- 
tact with him. It is hard to reconcile the evidence 
brought out at the Ruskin trial, with the language 
of a writer in The Saturday Review which follows: 
" His color is so exquisite, his actual method of pro- 
ducing the effect he desires by means of his brush 
so masterly, and all this adroit technique is so com- 
pletely part of a very fine and a very peculiar per- 
sonal temperament, that we are not much surprised 
that those who enjoy these things sincerely — a 
limited company — use, to express their pleasure, 
language which savors of extravagance. Mr. 
Whistler has a rare gift in drawing necks and 
waists and ankles. He excels in rendering the 

35 



James McNeill Whistler 

undulation of a graceful human body in the act of 
turning." 

" Some impressions of Whistler by Julian Haw- 
thorne, as printed in the Independent, are in part 
as below: He was, twenty- five years ago, Italian- 
looking; he was dark, with finely modeled features 
and black hair, and careless but brilliant and 
searching dark eyes. A little twist of black mous- 
tache was on his upper lip and a patch of black 
imperial decorated the centre of his square hand- 
some chin. In the midst of the tangled hair over 
his high forehead was the renowned white lock, 
which appears in all the caricatures of him; as if 
the finger of genius had touched him there with an 
affectionate caress and marked him out from other 
men and artists. Both as an artist and a man he 
belongs in a class by himself. His step was light 
and rather short and his shoulders had an impatient 
twitch as he moved to and fro. There is an im- 
mense and sweet good nature in Whistler which is 
hidden from the public by the notorious sharpness 
of his epigrams. He will tolerate not the slightest 

36 



James McNeill Whistler 

suspicion of humbug or pretense; but there is the 
tenderest, most fragrant human feeling in him for 
all that is good and true in mankind." 

Whistler has an individuality that is very in- 
tense, and it may be said of him with more truth 
than is often the case where others are concerned, 
there is perhaps no more interesting personality in 
the whole artistic world than is he. Mr. Whistler 
has lived to see himself famous and to enjoy the 
fruits of his fame. With his temperament it would 
indeed be extraordinary if he were not something of 
a poseur and we may easily believe it of him that 
when he goes to London, it is always with an out- 
fitting that is so very elaborate and unusual that 
when he appears on the city's streets he is sure to 
attract attention. In the long, black overcoat that 
he affects, with his French top hat, the brim of 
which stands straight out, carrying in his hand a 
long, thin cane or wand of bamboo, the London 
small boy scents a celebrity and in crowds they wor- 
shipfully follow him, until even the stoic smiles to 
see him pass. His boots and gloves fit him and he 

37 



James McNeill Whistler 



wears the eccentricities of genius with his clothes. 
He is happily, still in the full vigor of his artistic 
power and is probably the most observed and dis- 
cussed of all living artists. There may be a scat- 
tering remnant to whom the productions of 
Whistler are still unwelcome; it is true that the 
bulk of the small coteries who make up the artistic 
community have for the most part agreed that as 
an etcher and also as a painter of power no one de- 
serves higher respect mingled with admiration. His 
lithographic work has previously been noticed. As 
an etcher Mr. Whistler long since became acknowl- 
edged as a master. In evidence of this it may be 
noted that several of his scarcer proofs have already 
reached the round hundred pounds in money value. 
It is some time since Mr. Whistler has employed 
his etching needle, but there are those who know 
the versatility and latent power of the man and they 
will not be surprised if he once more becomes de- 
voted to the plate. 

It took much longer to convince the public that 
Mr. Whistler is correspondingly great and con- 

38 



James McNeill Whistler 



scientious as a painter in oils. Mr. Ruskin's libel 
and the Baronet's Valentine discussion relative to 
the Lady Eden picture, have suggested grave doubts 
in the minds of some, and it is only within very 
recent years that the painter has been generally ad- 
mitted to be the great master he undoubtedly is. 
Should any one still feel skeptical, let him cast aside 
bias and visit the gallery of the Luxembourg, and 
with prejudice eliminated, endeavor to place the 
painter of " My Mother " in his proper position. If 
he does not find this great canvas one of the most 
serious, if not the most serious, picture in the Col- 
lection, he has yet to know and grasp what is really 
great in Art. 

The " Piano " is one of Mr. Whistler's earlier 
pictures, and became known to the present day 
public on its being exhibited at the first Knights- 
bridge Exhibition in 1898. It is one of 
the few pictures Mr. Whistler ever sent to the 
Royal Academy, where it was exhibited in i860. 
John Philip, R.A., the painter of Spanish 
pictures, bought it at the Exhibition and thus 

39 



James McNeill Whistler 

manifested his hearty appreciation of the young 
painter. 

The charm of the picture Hes in the masterly 
simplicity of the lines of the piano and the pictures 
on the wall, as contrasted with the flowing lines of 
the two opposing figures — the mother, gravely 
seated at the piano, and the little girl absorbed in 
her listening. The child's figure is in a gauzy white 
dress and with folded feet, looking intently to the 
player, has been held to be one of the most perfect 
creations of modern art. 

It is but a portrait, and yet it conjures up all 
that is finest in a young girl and renders the com- 
position most satisfactory and makes of it one that 
is seldom equalled and more rarely excelled. 

Let but this picture be placed as a test beside a 
Gainsborough, a Van Dyck or even a Rembrandt, 
and it will at once be seen to what a high level the 
painter of it has attained. 

Whistler's work in the art field is often of 
agreeable, though sometimes of incomplete and ap- 
parently wayward, certainly of capricious perform- 

40 



James McNeill Whistler 

ance. The strictures of Mr. Ruskin were of course 
pronounced upon some of the less desirable of his 
designs. The " nocturnes " and " arrangements " by 
Whistler were argued pro and con, in his Ruskin 
controversy, to a considerable extent, but their value 
and merits did not finally and conclusively pass be- 
yond a stage that remained somewhat problemati- 
cal. It is unfortunate for Mr. Whistler that the is- 
suance of his pamphlet, " Art and Art Critics," and 
some other similar publications, should have made 
him known as the painter of his least important 
works. His worthier efforts have been forced into 
a subordinate place. The painter of the Luxem- 
bourg picture, and of Mr. Carlyle has been forgotten 
in the limelight publicity and familiarity that has 
been given to the " Arrangement in Black and 
Gold." 

The historian of " Wapping," the recorder of 
" Billingsgate," the pioneer discoverer of the many 
charms of " Chelsea," lags sadly behind the etcher 
of " The Sun and Swagger of St. James's Street." 
A proper appreciation of Whistler then signifies a 

41 



James McNeill Whistler 

closer and more careful study of his more commend- 
able work before judgment is warped and distorted 
by the narrow contem.plation only of his work that 
has inspired that ill-advised notoriety that is a poor 
substitute for celebrity and which is after all but a 
spurious equivalent for fame. Certain judges of 
Whistler's controverted endeavors, having to do 
with color, form and line, have given them confined 
fellowship with the art of wall paper, the floor cloth 
and the tesselated pavement. This may or may not 
be deserved, but it must be said in all candor that 
there is some technical foundation for such classi- 
fication. 

As a decorative painter. Whistler stands pre- 
eminent, but in his " Nocturnes " there is not only 
an utter lack of definition, but one searches in vain 
for gradation, and if they speak to the eye they are 
dumb to the mind of the beholder. It has been well 
said that a lined group of these " Nocturnes " on 
the upper panels of a lofty chamber, might, and 
doubtless would, afford even to the wall coverings 
of William Morris a welcome and possibly justifi- 

42 



James McNeill Whistler 

able alternative, but that it is in vain that we en- 
deavor to receive them as cabinet pictures particu- 
larly with the scale limitations that characterize 
them. They have a merit of their own, that is not 
by any means borrowed, but this merit is unfortu- 
nately only that of agreeable and restful simplicity 
if not of emptiness. Mr. Whistler has concerned 
himself but little with the interest of life — the inter- 
est of humanity, but yet he is not totally indifferent 
to the race to which he belongs. He has discov- 
ered and examplified the art possibilities that lurk 
in the peacock and some of his portraits are painted 
with admirable expressiveness. Mannerism has 
crept into his work, but the veracity of effect that 
he has generally been able to secure is certainly note- 
worthy. 

That Whistler has a passport to fame, few will 
deny, but it is more than likely that this fame will 
be secured because of his etchings rather than his 
paintings. If Whistler has a serious fault where 
his etchings are concerned, it lies in his having 
etched too much. His themes are legion because 

43 



James McNeill Whistler 

they are many. He has not only essayed landscapes 
but he has drawn a tree in " Kensington Garden " 
and likewise a tree in the foreground of the " Isle 
St. Louis, Paris," but some of his trees lack the 
silvan qualities. Vegetable attributes are woefully 
lacking for example in the " Isle St. Louis " tree. 
It might equally well be a shell in the process of ex- 
ploding as a tree. A critic is indeed captious when 
he demands that a given work of art shall be with- 
out flaw, but even the layman has good reason to 
expect that the faults shall not outweigh the merits. 
And in the case of this particular tree this can 
scarcely be held to be true. Some of Mr. Whistler's 
interiors are great. " The Kitchen " is thus typi- 
cal. Two things, it will be easily seen, have largely 
occupied Mr. Whistler as an artist, and these two 
things are the arrangement of colors in harmonious 
masses, and the grouping of light and shade. This 
has served in an accented way as his life in- 
spiration, and the best results he has been able to 
secure are to be found in decorative art, in work 
not dominated by a subject. Some of Whistler's 

44 



James McNeill Whistler 

finest achievements in the study of Hght and shade 
are to be found in some half dozen of his etchings 
that belong to that series in which the artist por- 
trays for our curious pleasure, the common sights 
and commonplace features of the shores and banks 
of the Thames. Quaintness of form stands out 
boldly in this series and lends a most pleasing charm 
to the lines of wharf and warehouse, that present, 
theoretically, at least, most unpromising art sub- 
jects. With originality and enthusiasm has he 
seized and fixed upon his etched plate the delightful 
outline oddities arising from roof, window, building 
and their appurtenances, in the light changes that 
come and go. That Whistler has serious limita- 
tions is seen in his defective figure drawing and 
again in his narrow power, when compared with the 
great marine painters, of drawing the forms of 
water, whether a river, like the Thames, is chosen, 
or the restless sea, with its smooth surface, or its 
curling billows. Some of the best of Whistler's 
work in etching that preserves studies of quaint 
places that either have, or soon will have, disap- 

45 



James McNeill Whistler 

peared, and but for these etchings would be for- 
gotten, are " The London Bridge," " The Little 
Limehouse," " Billingsgate," " Hungerford Bridge," 
"Thames Police" and "Black Lion Wharf." In 
these, at least, his art, if at other times, and in 
other places, it has manifested faults that merit the 
condemnation of the critic, has shown qualities that 
compel admiration. If he had done nothing else but 
these. Whistler's . future would not be oblivion by 
any manner of means. 

Some of the art theories of Whistler, while they 
are full of the fruit of his own experience, are also 
typical of the art cosmos. He says, for example: 
" No man alive is life-size except the recruit who is 
measured as he enters the regiment, and then the 
only man who sees him ' life size ' is the sergeant 
who measures him, and all that he sees of him is 
the end of his nose; when he is able to see his toes 
the man ceases to be life size." The Whistler 
philosophy that is of record here bristles with truth 
as a porcupine is armed with quills. Whatever 
else Mr. Whistler may be, it is certain that he has 

46 



James McNeill Whistler 

been and still is a close observer. It is evident that 
he knows something of the vagaries of the masses 
and of those who love to place themselves among 
the upper classes, when he writes : " The notion 
that I paint flesh lower in tone than it is in nature, 
is entirely based upon the popular superstition as 
to what flesh really is — when seen on canvas ; for 
the people never look at nature with any sense of 
its pictorial appearance — for the reason, by the 
way, they also never look at a picture with any 
sense of nature, but, unconsciously from habit, with 
reference to what they have seen in other pictures. 
Now in the usual " pictures of the year " there is 
but one flesh that shall do service under all cir- 
cumstances, whether the person painted be in the 
soft light of the room or out in the glare of the 
open. The one aim of the unsuspecting painter is 
to make his man " stand out " from the frame, 
never doubting that, on the contrar}^, he should 
really, and in truth absolutely does, stand within 
the frame, and at a depth behind it equal to the 
distance at which the painter sees his model. The 

47 



James McNeill Whistler 

frame, is indeed, the window through which the 
painter looks at his model and nothing could be 
more offensively inartistic than this brutal attempt 
to thrust the model on the hitherside of this win- 
dow! Yet this is the false condition of things to 
which all have become accustomed and in the stu- 
pendous effort to bring it about, exaggeration has 
been exhausted and the traditional means of the in- 
competent can no further go. Lights have been 
heightened until the white of the tube only re- 
mains; shadows have been deepened until black 
alone is left. Scarcely a feature stays in its place, 
so fierce is its intention of firmly coming forth; 
and in the midst of this unseemly struggle for 
prominence the gentle truth has but a sorry chance, 
falling flat and flavorless, and without force. The 
master himself from Madrid beside this monster 
success of mediocrity would be looked upon as 
mild: Beau bien sur, mais pas dans le mouvement. 
Whereas, could the people be induced to turn their 
eyes but for a moment with the fresh power of 
comparison, upon their fellow-creatures as they pass 

48 



James McNeill Whistler 

in the gallery, they might be made dimly to perceive 
(though I doubt it, so blind is their belief in the bad) 
how little they resemble the impudent images on the 
walls ! how " quiet " in color they are : — how " grey " 
— how " low in tone ! " And then it might be ex- 
plained to their riveted intelligence how they had 
mistaken meretriciousness for mastery, and by what 
mean methods the imposture had been practiced upon 
them." 

Whistler has deliberately sought to avoid rather 
than to introduce into his works anything that 
savors of what is sometimes known as the " literary 
quality." The difficulty that arose because of the 
consequent lack of name inspiration has been ad- 
mirably overcome by the use of such terms as 
" Harmony," " Nocturne," " Arrangement," " Sym- 
phony " and other musical derivatives that he has 
boldly applied to his art creations, notwithstanding 
the fact that such usages are without precedent. 

If Whistler cared for convention he would have 
sought out other names than such as these : " Note 
in Blue and Opal," " Crepuscule in Flesh Color and 

49 



James McNeill Whistler 

Green," " Little Grey Note," " Caprice in Purple and 
Gold," and again a *' Variation in Flesh Color and 
Green," but he has used these titles because each 
" note " is symbolic of some obviously emphasized 
color that to continue the use of musical similitudes 
corresponds to the key-note with which there must 
be harmony unless there be discord. 

Whistler has exercised a mighty influence upon 
contemporary art, just how much it is difficult to 
estimate, and if there be a tendency in such estima- 
tion it would emphatically be toward under-esti- 
mation. Without taking into consideration Whist- 
ler's own pupils, many a man has given unmistak- 
able evidences of having followed paths in the maze 
that Whistler had first blazed. Men were some- 
what similarly influenced thus by the grotesqueness 
of Aubrey Beardsley, but not so largely as by 
Whistler and his teachings. In both cases the in- 
fluence was felt b}^ men who would have scorned 
to plagiarize but who borrowed, unconsciously per- 
haps, but borrowed nevertheless, and because of 
such borrowing, because of the use of a Whistler 

50 



James McNeill Whistler 

accessory that had inherent art value of course, but 
which bore the Whistler Hall mark, the borrowers 
tinted their own works with something of a foreign 
charm and thus obtained from the unobservant mul- 
titude a popularity for their own inferior produc- 
tions, that without the Whistler influence would 
have halted before bestowal. 

Whistler is famous for his controversies. Ruskin 
and Du Maurier are but two well-known in- 
stances of a long and expanding line of per- 
sons with whom Whistler has differed polemically. 
His crusades against what he regards as unjust 
newspaper criticism by pamphlet and by letter 
present him as possessed of more than ordinary 
literary power, and because of the keenness of 
his counter-attack and sword-like repartee, he 
is a redoubtable antagonist. Holding as he 
does that only the practicing painter has the 
capacity to judge of art, he is forever on the alert 
to catch the professional critic in error and then to 
securely nail the discovered error, and to flaunt it 
without mercy. Their blunders and inaccuracies are 

SI 



James McNeill Whistler 

held up by him to unrelenting ridicule whenever 
there is opportunity for so doing until he has be- 
come a terror to those whom Whistler regards as 
his " natural prey." It is because of this that 
Whistler has sometimes been looked upon as un- 
gracious and forever antagonistic. 

The following anecdotes relating to Whistler 
shed luminous ra5''s of light upon the man and his 
personality and because of them our knowledge of 
him is better than it could possibly be without them : 

A commissioner, representing the American art 
section of a certain exposition, was to arrive in 
Paris a while ago to arrange with the American 
painters and sculptors resident there for their con- 
tributions. Wishing to be brisk and business-like, 
he wrote ahead to several artists stating that he 
'would be in Paris on a certain day, and at a certain 
hotel, and naming an hour at which he hoped each 
man would call upon him. On his schedule for 
the day was the name of McNeil Whistler and the 

52 



James McNeill Whistler 

hour "4:30 precisely." The note he received is 
worthy of the author of " The Gentle Art of Mak- 
ing Enemies " : 

" Dear Sir : — I have received your letter an- 
nouncing that you will arrive in Paris on the — th. 
I congratulate you. I have never been able, and 
never shall be able, to be anywhere at ' 4 :30 pre- 
cisely.' Yours most faithfully, 

"J. McN. Whistler." 

And again says Vance Thompson: " A Colorado 
millionaire — extremely millionaire — one who is get- 
ting up an art gallery, went to Whistler's studio in the 
Rue du Bac. He glanced casually at the pictures on 
the walls — ' symphonies ' in rose and gold, in blue 
and grey, in brown and green. 

"How much for the lot?" he asked, with the 
confidence of one who owns gold mines. 

" Four millions," said Whistler. 

"What!" 

" My posthumous prices," and the painter 
added, " Good morning." 

53 



James McNeill Whistler 

In the following there is just enough of char- 
acteristic likeness to make the portrait recognizable 
in spite of exaggeration: 

" I handed the servant my card, saying : " I wish 
to see Mr. Whistler." The servant withdrew, and 
reappeared presently with a printed slip of paper 
on which I read the following words : " Who 
is the greatest painter in the world?" 

I bethought myself a minute, and my mind's 
eye saw a long and brilliant pageant, from Giotto 
down to the present day; then I wrote this name — 
" Whistler." I was asked to step in. 

The studio was dyed grey, so to speak — grey 
walls, grey canvases, grey easels, grey chairs; Whis- 
tler his back turned towards me, in a grey suit, and 
on a dias a grey lady with grey hair, grey dress, 
grey skin, and grey gloves, was staring with grey 
eyes rather anxiously into my puzzled features. 

Whistler laid down palette and brushes, crossed 
his arms like Napoleon, and swung round on me. 
Without leaving me time to utter a greeting, 
he said sarcastically: 

54 



James McNeill Whistler 

" Parbleu ! this is a nice get-up to come and see 
me in, to be sure. I must request you to leave 
this place instantly." Then turning to Madame: 
'* These scribblers, rag-smudgers, incroyable! Why, 
it is, perfectly preposterous ! Did you ever hear 
such a dissonance in your life, Madame?" pointing 
with his right thumb over his shoulder. " His tie 
is in G Major, and I am painting this symphony 
in E Minor. I will have to start it again." He 
turned on his heels towards me, and said : " Take 
that roaring tie of yours off, you miserable wretch; 
remove it instantly." 

Being an adept in the gentle art of making 
friends, I removed my scarlet tie as quickly as pos- 
sible. 

The moment it had disappeared in my pocket he 
heaved a sigh of relief. " Thank goodness," he 
said, shading his eyes, " my sight is perfectly deaf." 

" I am so sorry, Mr. Whistler." 

"Whistler, sir? Whistler? That's not my 
name ! " he roared. 

" I beg your pardon." 
SS 



James McNeill Whistler 

" That is not my name. I say you don't seem 
to know your own language " — shrugging his 
shoulders. 

I looked at him sheepishly. 

" W-h is pronounced whhh — Whhhistler, Baa ! " 
and he dropped his eye-glass from his eye. 

" Thank you, Mr. Whhhistler. The object of 
my interview is to hear some of your ideas on the 
painter's art in general and yours more particularly. 
As you are probably aware, there are still a lot of 
people who are at a loss to understand either your 
paintings or your etchings. I should like to help 
the world to appreciate your revelations. 

"Revelations! I like that; that's good," said 
Whistler, " but, my dear sir," he continued now in 
quite a different tone, " that is impossible. They 
would never understand. It's much too high, too 
great. Why, I myself am compelled to stand on 
tiptoes to reach my own height, metaphorically 
speaking. To begin, with, you, my dear sir, are no- 
body, nothing from my point of view — just a con- 
glomeration of bad colours. Why on earth, man, 

56 



James McNeill Whistler 

do you wear a brown jacket with blue trousers 
That's Hke B flat in G Major, do you see?" 
" I can't say I do." 



57 



James McNeill Whistler 
A WHISTLER BIBLIOGRAPHY 

BOOKS WRITTEN BY MR. WHISTLER. 

Whistler vs. Ruskin. 

Art and Art Critics. 

Etchings and Dry Points. 
Venice. 

Second Series : — 

Nocturnes, Marines and Chevalet Pieces. Small 
collection kindly lent by their owners. 

" Notes," " Harmonies," " Nocturnes." 

" Ten o'clock." 

" Ten o'clock." Lecture delivered in London, 
Cambridge and at Oxford. 

" The Gentle Art of Making Enemies." 

" The Baronet and the Butterfly." 

Many books and magazines contain extended 
notices of Whistler and his name appears in numer- 
ous art catalogues. There is also a long list of 
portraits and caricatures of him that was once pub- 
lished in the N. Y. Literary Collector. 

59 



James McNeill Whistler 



AVERY COLLECTION OF WHISTLER 
ETCHINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS 

IN THE PRINT DEPARTMENT OF THE LENOX LIBRARY 

Numbered according to the Frederick Wetmore 
Catalogue. London, 1899 



1. Early Portrait of Whistler. 

2. Annie Haden. 

3. The Dutchman Holding the Glass. 

4. Liver dun. 

5. La Retameuse. 

6. En Plein Soleil. 

7. The Unsafe Tenement. 

8. The Dog on the Kennel. 

9. La Mere Gerard. 

10. La Mere Gerard Stooping. 
61 



James McNeill Whistler 

11. Street at Saverne. 

12. Gretchen at Heidelberg. 

13. Little Arthur. 

14. La Vieille aux Loques. 

15. Annie. 

16. La Marchande de Moutarde. 

17. The Rag Gatherers. 

18. Fumette. 

19. The Kitchen. 

20. The Title to the French Set. 

21. Auguste Delatre. 

22. A Little Boy. 

23. Seymour. 

24. Annie, Seated. 

25. Reading by Lamp-light. 

26. The Music Room. 

27. Soupe a Trois Sous. 

28. Bibi Valentin, 

29. Reading in Bed. 

30. Bibi Lalouette. 

31. The Wine Glass. 

32. Greenwich Pensioner. 

62 



James McNeill Whistler 

33. Greenwich Park. 

34. Nursemaid and Child. 

35. Thames Warehouses from Thames Tunnel 
Pier. 

36. Westminster Bridge. 

37. Limehouse. 

38. A Wharf. 

39. Tyzac, Whiteley and Co. 

40. Black Lion Wharf. 

41. The Pool. 

42. Thames Police. 

43. 'Long Shore Man. 

44. The Lime-Burner. 

45. Billingsgate. 

46. The Landscape with the Horse. 

47. Arthur Seymour. 

48. Becquet. 

49. Astruc, a Literary Man. 

50. Fumette, Standing. 

51. Fumette's Bent Head. 

52. Whistler. 

53. Drouet. 

63 



James McNeill Whistler 

54. Finette. 

55. Paris: The Isle de la Cite. 

56. Venus. 

57. Annie Hayden. 

58. Mr. Mann. 

59. The Penny Boat. 

60. Rotherhithe. 

61. Axenfeld. 

62. The Engraver. 

63. The Forge. 

64. Joe. 

65. The Miser. 

66. Vauxhall Bridge. 

67. Millbank. 

68. The Punt. 

69. Sketching. 

70. Westminster Bridge in Progress. 

71. The Little Wapping. 

72. The Little Pool. 

73. Tiny Pool. 

74. Ratcliffe Highway. 

75. Encamping. 

64 



James McNeill Whistler 

76. Ross Winans. 

yy. The Storm. 

j'^. Little Smithfield. 

79. Cadogan Pier. 

80. Old Hungerford Bridge. 

81. Chelsea Wharf. 

82. Amsterdam, Etched from the Tolhuis. 

83. Weary. 

84. Shipping at Liverpool. 

85. Chelsea Bridge and Church. 

86. Speke Hall. 

87. The Model Resting. 

89. ' Swan ' Brewery. 

90. Fosco. 

91. The Velvet Dress. 

92. The Little Velvet Dress. 

94. Fanny Leyland 

95. Elinor Leyland. 

96. Florence Leyland. 
98. Tatting. 

100. Maude, Seated. 

1 01. The Beach. 

6s 



James McNeill Whistler 



1 02. Tillie: A Model. 

103. Seated Girl, 

112. A Child on a Couch. 

114. Steamboats off the Tower. 

115. The Little Forge. 

116. Two Ships. 

117. The Piano. 

118. The Scotch Widow. 

120. The Dam Wood. 

121. Shipbuilder's Yard. 

122. The Guitar-Player. 

123. London Bridge. 

124. Price's Candle- Works. 

125. Battersea: Dawn. 

126. The Muff. 

128. The White Tower. 

130. A Sketch from Billingsgate. 

131. Fishing-Boats-Hastings. 

132. Wych Street. 

134. Free-Trade Wharf. 

135. The Thames towards Erith. 

136. Lindsay Houses. 

66 



James McNeill Whistler 

137. From Pickled Herring Stairs. 

140. St. James's Street. 

141. Battersea Bridge. 

142. Whistler, with the White Lock. 

143. The Large Pool. 

144. The ' Adam and Eve ' Old Chelsea. 

145. Putney Bridge. 

146. The Little Putney. 

147. Hurlingham. 

148. Fulham. 

149. The Little Venice. 

150. Nocturne. 

151. The Little Mast. 

152. The Little Lagoon. 

153. The Palaces. 

154. The Doorway. 

155. The Piazetta. 

156. The Traghetto. 

157. The Riva. 

158. Two Doorways. 

159. The Beggars. 

160. The Mast. 



James McNeill Whistler 

i6i. Doorway and Vine. 

162. Wheelwright. 

163. San Biagio. 

164. Bead-Stringers. 

165. Turkeys. 

166. Fruit-Stall. 

167. San Giorgio. 

168. Nocturne Palaces. 

169. Long Lagoon. 

170. Temple. 

171. The Bridge. 

172. Upright Venice. 

173. Little Court. 

174. Lobster Pots. 

175. The Riva, Number Two. 

176. Drury Lane. 

177. The Balcony. 

178. Fishing-Boat. 

179. Ponte Piovan. 

180. Garden. 

181. The Rialto. 

182. Long Venice. 

68 



James McNeill Whistler 

183. Furnace Nocturne. 

184. Quiet Canal. 

185. Salute: Dawn. 

186. Lagoon: Noon. 

187. Murano-Glass Furnace. 

188. Fish-Shop, Venice. 
190. Little Salute. 

192. Regent's Quadrant. 

193. Islands. 

195. Old Women. 

196. Alderney Street. 

197. The Smithey. 

199. Nocturne-Salute. 

200. Dordrecht. 

201. A Corner of the Palais Royal. 
203. Booth at a Fair. 

206. The Seamstress. 

208. Fragment of Piccadilly. 

209. Old Clothes Shop. 
213. The Steps. 

226. Putney: Number Three. 

256. Passages de I'Opera. 

69 



James McNeill Whistler 



LITHOGRAPHS. 

The Long Gallery, Louvre. 

Nocturne. 

Etude de Femme. (Colored.) 

Yellow House Lannion. (Colored.) 

Woman, Standing. 

Gaiety, Stage Door. 

Victoria Club. 

Old Battersea Bridge. 

Reading. 

and one other without title. 



70 



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